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How to Read Crochet Patterns


Updated May 04, 2016
(2 Votes)


Learning to crochet practically means learning another language- or at least that's what it may seem like at first. Don't worry! Reading crochet patterns is done from left to right, just like you're reading a book. I am here to help you understand how to read crochet patterns, no matter if you are a beginner crocheter that is just starting out or if you're more advanced and looking for a refresher.

Crochet patterns usually have a few things in common. Most of them start out with a foundation chain where other stitches are worked from later. However, there are a few patterns that start out with a chainless foundation, which creates your stitches and your chain at the same time and completes the first row. Check out these video tutorials for both: How to Crochet Basics for the Absolute Beginner and How to Crochet a Chainless Foundation.

How to Read Crochet Patterns

How to Read Crochet Patterns (how2 rdc pats)

Crochet Terms and Abbreviations
Common Qualities of Reading Crochet Patterns
Video on How to Read Crochet Patterns
Starting Your Crochet Project

Crochet Terms and Abbreviations

The key to understanding crochet patterns is knowing how to read what can seem like an overly complicated computer code. These abbreviations are actually the stitches that the patterns uses in shorthand, because it could take pages and pages to write out all of the words in full. Most of the time, the pattern you are working with will have an indication of what stitches they are using by including their own chart of abbreviations. Below, you will find a table of common terms that are used in crochet instructions, just in case you find yourself reading a crochet pattern that is without its own specific guide.


Abbreviation Meaning/Term
alt alternate
beg beginning
bet between
BL back loop
bl block
BPdc back post double crochet
ch(s) chain(s)
cl(s) cluster(s)
dc double crochet
dec decrease
dtr double treble crochet
edc extrended double crochet
ehdc extended half double crochet
esc extended single crochet
fdc chainless foundation double crochet
fhdc chainless foundation half double crochet
FL front loop
FPdc front post double crochet
fsc chainless foundation single crochet
Abbreviation Meaning/Term
hdc half double crochet
hk hook
inc increase
lp(s) loop(s)
p picot
pat(s) pattern(s)
pm place marker
rem remain(ing)
rep, *, [ ] repeat(s)
rnd(s) round(s)
sc single crochet
sk skip
sl st slip stitch
sp(s) space(s)
st(s) stitch(es)
tog together
tks Tunisian knit stitch
tps Tunisian purl stitch
tr treble crochet
tr tr triple treble crochet
tss Tunisian simple stitch
ws wrong side
yo yarn over


Reading patterns between the UK and the US is also a completely different story. If you need help with those translations, go to our Crochet Symbols and Directions Chart. You will find these abbreviations as well as a diagram explaining how each stitch is used in both types of patterns.

Common Qualities of Reading Crochet Patterns

Even though people write their instructions differently, that doesn't mean you can't break it down to the basics of how to read a crochet pattern. You can at least count on these things to be there for you:

  • A materials list and gauge/sizing information
  • Row-by-row (or round) and finishing instructions
  • Yarn weight and crochet hook size needed (Learn how to choose the right crochet hook size and see a helpful crochet hook size chart, or browse patterns by hook size.)
  • A range of sizes, or instructions on making your crochet project bigger or smaller
  • Abbreviations (as shown above) and specific punctuation to simplify reading the crochet pattern (Learn how to understand punctuation better here)

Remember: Don't be afraid to ask for help! If a pattern is included on a crochet website or blog, you can usually leave a comment for the designer to help you out if you get stuck.



Starting Your Crochet Project

Being a good crocheter doesn't necessarily mean that you've known how to crochet for years and learned all the tips and tricks. In my opinion, a good crocheter is always aware of what they are doing and how they are doing it. For instance, a big part of the crochet process is counting your stitches as you work. If you don't do this, you are just going to make the crochet project worse for yourself and end up taking more time than expected.

It is also important to know what the gauge is and how to check it, which could mean a few things. You may work up a swatch before you start the actual project so that you have something to compare. You may also use a ruler to check that you have the right amount of stitches within an inch or four, depending on what the pattern specifies originally. If you have more stitches per inch, change to a larger hook. If you have fewer stitches per inch, change to a smaller hook. Knowing these simple things can increase your crochet ability in no time.

If you think that you are now ready to tackle the crochet world, try your hand at our beginner crochet patterns. You might also be interested in what you can crochet with your specific crochet hook sizes here


8 Different Crochet Stitches: Learn to Crochet Something New with Free Crochet Patterns


If you feel like you just don't know where to start, download our free eBook, 8 Different Crochet Stitches: Learn to Crochet Something New with Free Crochet Patterns, to help you decide!


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The readings vary between books/designs.

I am looking to make a baby blanket, but I want to make it smaller than the pattern asks for.can you help me or gide me how to do that. ty

The easiest way to make an item smaller than the pattern calls for, is to use a smaller hook. Sometimes you can even get away with using the same sized yarn, but you may want to get a smaller sized yarn if you are wanting to make it much, much smaller. There are other ways, such as cutting down the patter, but that is trickier and may not work out depending on the pattern.

You've probably already finished that baby blanket but I wanted to give you another idea on how to make a pattern smaller. In something as basic as a flat blanket, you usually have a regular repeat of stitches that you follow. You just need to figure out how many stitches are in the repeat and go from there. For example, a pattern repeat of 3 stitches means you need to start with a number divisible by 3. If there is a stitch at the beginning and/or end of each row, you add that stitch or stitches into the mix, so you'd chain a number divisible by 3 plus 1 or 2, depending on how many non-pattern stitches you have at the beg or end of the row. Often, it's just the chains you have to skip to work your first stitch that you have to add to your count. Some patterns have this listed so you could do the same stitch pattern for a blanket as you do for a much narrower scarf or dishrag.


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